A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Crossover Studies Comparing Physiological, Perceptual and Performance Measures Between Treadmill and Overground Running.


Treadmills are routinely used to assess running performance and training parameters related to physiological or perceived effort. These measurements are presumed to replicate overground running but there has been no systematic review comparing performance, physiology and perceived effort between treadmill and overground running.


The objective of this systematic review was to compare physiological, perceptual and performance measures between treadmill and overground running in healthy adults.


AMED (Allied and Contemporary Medicine), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched from inception until May 2018. Included studies used a crossover study design to compare physiological (oxygen uptake [[Formula: see text]O


Thirty-four studies were included. Twelve studies used a 1% grade for the treadmill condition and three used grades >‚ÄČ1%. Similar [Formula: see text]O


Some, but not all, variables differ between treadmill and overground running, and may be dependent on the running speed at which they are assessed.

Protocol Registration

CRD42017074640 (PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews).